World War

MAIN IDEA WW1 involves other non-European countries and the war comes to an end.

A Global Conflict

As Europe faces global conflict, World War 1 started shaping the European geography. The Allies (France, Great Britain, Russia), and the Central Powers(Germany, and later joined by Ottoman Turks) were in stalemate. Later, countries from outside the Europe such as Japan joined the Allies. The Central Powers allied with Bulgaria. Each group tried to form an alliance with other countries in order to secure more land and increase their geological benefit.

Both the Allies (France, Great Britain, Russia) and the Central Powers (Germany, the Ottoman Turks, Bulgaria) were in stalemate. Either one of them had to make their move or else one would lose greatly.external image gallipoli.jpg

Gallipoli Campaign (Feb 1915-Dec 1915)

The Allies tried to end the stalemate by attacking the Dardanelles, which was one of the regions in Ottoman Empire located in Gallipoli Peninsula[see the map on the right]. If the Allies could conquer the area, the gateway to the Ottoman capital Constantinople would open and defeating the Turks wouldn’t be a matter. Also, the area provided better supply line to Russia. The allied military of Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand made many attempts to take over but failed.

To the right is a map of the area of the Gallipoli Peninsula. source

Forming Allies with Other Countries

Although the Gallipoli Campaign was a failure, countries that were been conquered by the Ottoman Empire and the Central Powers started helping the Allies.
Arabia: By the help of Britain, Arab nation made guerilla raids against the Turks.
Asia: The Japanese took control of German outposts in China and other colonies in Pacific island
Africa: English and French troop took over Germany’s three African possessions.
India: provided many laborers and also some men to fight helping the British.
The United States Enters the War

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

In 1917, the British made naval blockade and caused severe food shortage in Germany. Germany decided to make it’s own naval blockade around Britain. The German declared that they would sink any ships around Britain without warning. One of the British ship names Lusitania was attacked and resulted harm and death on some US citizens. The US president Woodrow Wilson was very angry by the Germans action and he strongly protested them. German agreed not to attack any passenger ship, in fear of war with the US. Despite the US warning, Germany thought that they could defeat Britain if they kept their naval blockade. They ended up sinking three American ships.
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German’s Secret Message to Mexico

Germany thought that the US would be a great threat to them in taking over Britain. Germany’s foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann sent telegram to Mexico that they would help Mexico to take back the land that was stolen from the US. However, Britain intercepted the telegram, and decoded the message. The US president Wilson became furious of the German action and declared war against Germany helping the Great Britain.

To the right is the Zimmermann Telegram that was sent to the German Ambassador in Mexico. The telegram was intercepted, however. source

War Affects the Home Front

The World War had affected not only military and soldiers, but also the civilization, politics, economy and social facts as well.
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Governments Wage Total War

The main affect was about the employment. Because of the men on the front line needed equipments and also food, most of the facilities were converted into munitions factories and every single men in the country had to work. As a result, no people were unemployed and left out. The government told them what to make and how much they needed. They also turned many supplies in to rationing. Rationing is a system that people in the country not the front could only buy small amount product because the military needs it. When the war ended, the employment rate got lower. Also the people drew propaganda posters tp get more men and cheer them up.

To the right is a rationing poster on sugar. source

The War's Impact on Women

As time goes, more and more men went out for war and in the end there were not enough men to work and run the factories. So women had to do everything inside. When the war ended, the view of women were changed by that they are capable of doing many things.

The below video shows women's jobs in WW1. source

Allies' Victory

With the United States help, the Allies took greater advantage over winning the war, or so it seemed. Later, one of an allied country Russia gave away the victory on Eastern Front to Germany.

Russia Withdraws from the war

Internal Conflict in Russia

The harshness of the war kept tormenting the Russian government and people. Food and fuel for the war was at the end point and the people started to doubt that they could hold much more in the war. By 1917 March, the Russian leader Czar Nicholas gave up his throne in order to avoid any revolution. After Czar resigned, the government took the power. The government still wished to fight the war but the people were at their limit. About 5.5 million soldiers were wounded and killed. The tired Russian army refused to fight any longer.

Ending the War for Russia

In November of 1917 an another revolution occurred. To save this turmoil a new leader named Vladimir Ilyich Lenin stood up. Lenin wished to end the war and so did he with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed in March 1918. By signing on the treaty to Germany, the Russian ended the war, but the price was big. Russia had to give-up lands to Germany that included Finland, Poland, Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

A Failed Final Push

Germany's Full Attack to Western Front

As Russia withdrew from the war, it was easy for Germany to make full attack to Western
front. In March 1918, Germany made it's final massive attacks. They destroyed everything that passed by. Paris was near and they almost reached to the victory. However, the German military was weakening. Reaching all the way to Marne River, made soldiers exhausted and experience supply shortage.

Reinforcement from the United States

Sensing the weakening of the German forces, the Allies made their counter attack with the aid of 140,000 American troops. The soldiers were not elites but they had courage and motivation which made a very reliable reinforcement. In July 1918, the Allies and Germans faced the second battle of the Marne. 2 million more American troops arrived and the Allies forces were starting to advance toward Germany.

War's End

The Central Power was declining as the Allies advanced.Bulgarians and Ottoman Turks surrendered and in October, Austria-Hungary faced revolution which brought the empire to it's end. The German leader Kaiser Wilhelm II was to resign and the government declared itself a republic. A representative of the German government and the French leader signed an armistice in Paris, which meant an agreement to stop fighting. On November 11, World War 1 meat it's end
Key Terms
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- Threatening other countries not to sale a ship with armed submarine.

Total War- When a country puts it's whole effort on war.

Propaganda- It is one side information that makes people believe it is right.

Armistice- Like peace treaty, it's an agreement between opponents not to fight anymore

Student Lectures: World War I becomes Global War

Sean and Matt

Hyungmo and John

Compiled from:

E. pd 13.3 War Affects the World
A. pd 13.3 War Affects the World-Hyung Mo Choi and John Lee