Julia Ryoo and Lauren Lee Pd.A

Susan and Yoohee E period


Fascism Rises in Europe


Julia:

Previous Overview


Many capitalist countries like United States, Britain, and France went through harsh economic crisis called the Great Depression. People lost faith in capitalism and they turned to a new system of government called fascism.

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Fascism Beliefs and Policies


Fascism, the new militant political movement, emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. Fascists attracted people by promising for “reviving the economy, punishing the irresponsible previous

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(←Fascism adpated an extreme from of nationalism and emphasized loyalto to the state and leader.) leaders, and restoring national pride.” People who were angered by the peace treaties after WWI and by the Great Depression were pleased to hear this massage and accepted Fascism.

Fascism was different from any of the previous ideologies.
...................................................................................................... (↑Germany also was a fascist country under the rule of Hitler. This is a picture of Nazis united as one group.)
Fascism didn’t have a clearly defined theory or program, but it emphasized on nationalism and loyalty to their country. Facsists preached several ideas that benefited the country. For example, Fascists accepted an extreme special salutes, and held mass rallies. Furthermore, the fascists believed that the nation must struggle in order to be safe and strong—peaceful countries were attacked and conquered.

In some ways, fascism was similar to communism. Both were ruled by dictators, denied individual rights, and both thought the state was supreme. However, fascism thought that each class had its place and function. Fascist parties were nationalists and were made up of aristocrats and industrialist, war veterans, and lower middle class.


Mussolini Controls in Italy

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Bitter disappointment over the failure to win large territorial gains at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference led to the rise of fascism. Also, rising inflation and unemployment contributed to widespread of fascism. Italy’s upper class and middle classes were feared of a Communist revolution, like in Russia, and they needed a new leader, other than a democratic government, that would take an action to the country’s problems.

A newspaper editor and politician named Benito Mussolini promised to rescue Italy by developing its economy and its armed forces. Mussolini found the Fascist Party in 1919. As the economy became worse, many people from middle class such as aristocracts, and industrial leaders started to support Mussolini. In October 1922, about 30,000 fascists marched on Rome and suggested for King Victor Emmanuel III to put Mussolini in charge of the government. The king agreed and decided that Mussolini was the best hope for his dynasty to survive. He let Mussolini form a government and after the widespread of violence and a threat of armed uprising, Mussolini took power legally.
(Mussolini on the right)
Mussolini then became Il Duce, the leader and 100% abolished democracy and outlawed all political parties except the Fascists. He made to only allow the publications about Fascist doctrines.
He tried to control the economy by allying the Fascists with the industrialists and large landowners.                
Under Mussolini, Italy became a model for Fascism.

*This is Mussolini's speech in front of the his citizens. He is wearing general uniform and appears to be very strict. His loud voice and confidence in front of the crowd gave his the power. (source: YouTube)




【 Pro-Nazis Video so be aware of biased information!】

▶This video is an introduction to how Hitler was raised up as a child. Hitler had a poor childrenhood as an orphan and also as an unfamous artist. Don't focus on the captions in this video but more on the facts like when his parents died, art career, map of Germany before and after war, and so forth.



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Hitler Takes Control


Hitler started out as a little known political leader who had a miserable early life. He volunteered for the Germany army to fight for Germany during the World War I and received two Iron Cross, which is a medal for bravery. After the World War I, Hitler settles in Munich. He later on joined a small political group in the early 1920s. This group's belief was that Germany should overturn the Treaty of Versailles and fight against communism. This group later on was called as the Nazis, which is shortened from National Socialist German Worker's Party. Unlike communism, which supported the working and the lower class, the Nazi Party was mainly supported by the middle or lower middle class and later on formed a branch of fascism which we all know as Nazism. The symbol of the Nazis was called as the Swastika, which means "well-being" in Sanskrit and was an ancient good-luck symbol.


→ This video is an example of how Hitler had great speeching skills. This is a speech Hitler did to the Hitler Youth. Focus on his raise of tone and emphasizing on words. Great speeching, like this one, influenced Hitler's support amazingly.

The Nazis made a private military called the storm troopers or Brownshirts. Hitler was very talented in manipulating huge audiences with his speech. He had a fiery oratory that made speeches crucial to Hitler. He believed that the major events in the world was brought by the spoken word. But due to his awkardness at first, he rehearsed his speeches. His way of manipulating was starting at a low voice at first but suddenly getting louder with his hands pointing to the sky above. After all the anger was presented, he went back to his calm look with smoothened hswastika-bangon.jpgair. A foreign diplomat, who is suspected to be biased, said that Hitler looked like as if he was going to bring down the universe and had a face of a lunatic. Due to his excellent skill in organizing and speaking, this led him to be a der Fuhrer, the leader of the Nazis, and also made Nazis a great political force. In 1923, inspired by Mussolini's March to Rome, Hitler and Nazis also plotted to seize power in Munich but failed and Hitler was arrested. He was sentences 5 years in prison but stayed only for 9 months. During those 9 months, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf which included all of his beliefs and goals he had for Germany. This became the blueprint, or a plan, for the Nazis. This was also where he wrote that only the "Aryans", who are Germans that are blond and blue-eyed, was the "master race". This meant that the Jews, Slavs, and Gypsies were inferior and not the master race. He once again called the unfair Treaty of Versailles an outrage and promised to get back the land they lost in the process. He also said that Germany was too crowded and that Germany needed more lebensraum, which means living space. He said that this would be solved as soon as he conquered Eastern Europe and Russia. In 1924, when he came back from prison, he united the Nazis party once again. People didn't really believe him until ................................................... This is the Swastika.........
Germany's economy was down at the floor during the Depression which was also when factories and banks were closed. 6 million people were unemployed in 1932 and the frightened people eventually turned to Hitler wanting security and strong consistent friendship.


Hitler becomes Chancellor

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By 1932, Nazis are now the biggest political power and conservative leaders, who thought hitler would listen to them, adviced President Paul von Hindenburg to name Hitler the Chancellor. They believed the Hitler was the only one that could fight against the communist party in Germany. When Hitler got his position, he made quick actions that helped strengthen his position. He called for new elections hoping to win a majority in the Parliamentary. 6 days before the election, a fire burned downed the Reichstag building, which was where parliaments met. reichstg.jpg The blame went to the communist and by using that to form a fear against the communist, Nazis were able to get the majority from the parliament. With the support, Hitler had absolute power for four years. Germany was changed into a totalitarian state. Hitler banned all other political parties except the Nazis, and arrested the opponents. An elite black uniformed group called as the SS (Schutzstaffel) was created to protect and be loyal to Hitler. In 1934, the SS arrested and (This is a picture of how the SS dressed up.) ▶murdered hundreds of Hitler's enemies. The SS group's brutal actions and Gestapos, the Nazi secret police's terror made most Germans become totally obedient. Economically, they (★This is the Reichstag Building) had full control. New laws were made to ban strikes, destroy labor unions, and governments had authority over buisnesses.

This made the employment rate to drop to 1.5 million unemployed in 1936. They constructed factories, built highways, manufactured weapons, and served in the military.


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......................................................................... ▶ This is a picture where the SS arrests Jews.......................................................................



Hitler's way of overcoming obstacles in his way of power


But Hitler wanted more than just political and economic pKristallnacht.gifower. So he used radio, literature ,press, painting, and film as propaganda tools. Books that were against Nazism was burned, churches were forbidden to critcize, schoolchildren had to join the Hilter Youth (for boys) or the League of German Girls. He was influenced by Social Darwinism. He believed that there needed to be struggle for victory and twisted Nietzche's idea, which is follow what you think it's right, to support his brutal acts. Hatred of Jews was one of the main points of the of Nazis ideology. Although only 1 percent of population, they passed laws that took away most rights from Jews in 1933. November 9, 1938, Nazi mobs attacked Jews in their homes, on the streets ,and destroyed thousands of Jewish buildings. This was called as the Kristallnacht (Night of the Broken Glass) and was the real start of eliminating Jews.

This is a picture after the incident of the Kristallnacht, the Night of the Broken Glass.
You could see the damages the Nazis caused to stores owned by Jews.



Image credits:
"Nationalism" flag used by kind permission by creator.