Allies are Victorious

The Allies are against the Axis powers. The Allies are Britain, U.S., and the Soviet Union.
We have seen Germany, Italy, and Japan, the Axis powers expand their territories.
Germany takes over Europe, Italy invades into Africa, and Japan swallows Asia. These three "bullies" are being battled by the Allies.

left to right: Portrait of Winston Churchill Source, The Axis Leaders (Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler)Source

By this time(after 1942), everyone in the world were sick of the atrocities of the war.
People were waiting for this war to come to an end.
Watch how the Allies become the "heroes" of this War!

Victory tilts to the Allies

The Allies are ready to win the war

On December 22, 1941, Allies met and discussed their strategies. Stalin wanted the British and the Americans to attack Germany from the West.
By doing so, Stalin wanted the German forces to divide into Western and Eastern front. Churchill and Roosevelt both agreed with this strategy.
However, Churchill did not carry out Stalin's plan quite yet. He first attacked Northern Africa and Southern Europe. This provoked Stalin. For Stalin, this mean that the Soviet Union would have to resist the Germans by themselves in the Eastern front. Although Churchill did not carry out Stalin's plans, the Allies still remained solid. In fact, the war was tilting toward their victory.

The North African Campaign

Since 1941, Germans had been fighting in the deserts of North Africa. A German general named Erwin Rommel took over an important port city of Tobruk. Britain sent General Bernard Montgomery to lead the forces in North Africa.

One famous battle between Rommel and Montgomery is the Battle of El Alamein. El Alamein is a famous village in Egypt, it's located in the west of Alexandria. German soldiers were stationed in the village. The German soldiers held their defense well. However, on the night of October 23, the British surprised attacked the Germans.
Both sides fought with determination. By November 3, Rommel's army was defeated and had to retreat to the west.
As the German soldiers were heading west, the Allies carried out the plan of Operation Torch. More than 107,000 Allied troops(mostly Americans) landed in Morocco and Algeria. This troop was lead by General Dwight D. Eisenhower. The German soldiers were finally surrounded like a sandwich, Montgomery chasing them from the east, and Eisenhower's troops from the West.
Rommel's army finally became the ham in the sandwich in May of 1943, when his army was totally destroyed.

external image dwight%20eisenhower.gifexternal image rommel4.jpgexternal image bmontgomery.jpg
(left to right) Eisenhower Source 2
, Erwin RommelSource 3
, General Bernard Montgomery Source 4

The Battle of Stalingrad

We just observed Germans being defeated in Northern Africa. Now, we will see them lose to the Soviet Union.
The German army attacked the Western border of the Soviet Union. Hiter wanted the Soviet Union's major industrial city was Stalingrad and the rich oil fields in the Caucasus Mountains.
The Battle of Stalingrad is a famous battle that took place in Stalingrad of August 23, 1942.
Stalin ordered "Not one step backward!"
The situation of looking horrible for the Soviet Union. The Germans had conquered 90% of the city. However, the winter saved the Soviet Union. On November 19, Soviet troops counterattacked from outside the city. Germans' supplies were cut off.
On Febuary 2, 1943, the German troops surrendered. Over 90,000 German soldier had been frostbitten and starved.
Only 90,000 of Hitlers' 330,000 troops in Stalingrad survived. Soviets had lost 1 million soldier, but they defended their 99% destroyed city. In the Battle of Stalingrad, the Germans were on offense and Soviets were on defense. However, now, the Soviets are on offense and the Germans are on defense. The Soviets are now chasing the Germans westward.

The Invasion of Italyexternal image history_shot.jpg

Stalin asked Roosevelt and Churchill to invade France. However, in July 10 of 1943, 180,000 British and American forces landed on Sicily and captured it from the Axis troops. Italy surrendered Mussolini was removed from power because of this. However, Hitler gave him power by putting Mussolini in charge of Northern Italy that the Germans had conquered. The fighting in Italy went on until, finally, the fall of Germany in May 1945. German troops pulled out of Northern Italy. The Italian resistance ambushed the Germans, and found Mussolini disguised as a German soldier. The next day, Mussolini was shot, and his body became a display in Milan.

This is a picture of Allies' ships landing on Italy.Source 1

Eisenhower: Source 2
Erwin Rommel: Source 3
General Bernard Montgomery: Source 4
Landing on Italy Source 5

At Home

Total War

Total War is an important phrase. What does it mean? It means that a country has put in all their resouces to win a war.
This was taking place in the U.S. To defeat the Axis power, the U.S. needed a lot of materials for war. Factories were converted to wartime producers. They made things from machine guns to canteens. Car factories became factories that produced tanks.
By 1944, almost 18 million workers in the United States were working for war production factories. Note: most of the workers were women.
A speed limit was set in the U.S. at 35 miles per hour, to reduce the amount of gasoline used.
A young man in Moscow collected scraps of metal for the army. The amount of metal he collected was enought to make 14,000 artillery shells. The Shirmanovs, a Soviet family, used all their money to buy a tank for the Soviet Army.
Another example can be found in the U.S., teenagers collected pennies and bought war stamps and bonds made by the government to help in the war ecnomically.

Japanese-Americans Imprisoned

After Pearl Harbor, Americans were prejudice against Japanese Americans. At that time, there were 127,000 Japanese Americans who lived moslty in Hawaii and the West Coast. People saw them as enemies. In March of 1942, Jthe American military searched for Japanses Americans, and they shipped the "aliens" to relocation camps. These camps were located away from their homes. The U.S. government thought if the Japanese Americans were away from the coast, they wouldn't be able to participate in an invasion similiar to the Pearl Harbor. 31,275 innocent people were imprisoned from 1941 to 1946.

external image homes.gif

(above) A propanganda warning the possibility of Japanese and Germans invasion. Propanganda: Source 7

Allies are Finally Victorious

Victory is Near

The Allies will invade France and drive the Germans out. By May of 1944, the Allies were ready to invade. 3.5 million troops were just waiting for an order. Eisenhower was the commander of this big army. He planned to attack the coast of Normandy, loccated in northwestern France.The Germans knew an attack was coming, but they did not know where. The day of this invasion is called D-Day, it's on June 6, 1944. Soldier tried to land in the beach that was 60 miles wide, and with Germans shooting machine guns, rocket launchers, and cannons. Bodies were everywhere. On that day more than 3,000 American troops alone died. With a lot of casualties, the Allies conquered the beach. A month later, more than 1 million troops landed in Normandy. Soon after that, Germans defense line was torn apart and they were retreating. On August 25, the Allies got hold of Paris. In addition, by September, the Allies freed France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and a part of the Netherlands. Now, the Allies were aiming their weapons at Germany.

Germany was becoming a sandwich. Allies attacking from the west and the Soviet Union attacking from the east.
Hitler had to fight two fronts.
Battle of the Bulge is one battle where Nazis broke through American defense front in Ardennes. Eventually the Allies counterattacked and actually drove the Germans back. Forcing the Germans to retreat.

(left to right) This is an Youtube video Source 10 taken from Saving Private Ryan about the D-Day Invasion, and on the right is a picture Source 9 taken from the boat that landed on the coast of Normandy.

Victory in Europe

After the Battle of the Bulge, the World War 2 is coming to an end. 3 million Allied troops from the southwest and 6 million Soviet troops from the east were coming toward Berlin. Berlin had been surrounded by April 25, 1945, and artillery were continuously fired.
Hitler prepared to kill himself in the underground headquarters of Berlin. He blamed the innocent Jews for starting the war and he also blamed his generals for losing it. He never acknowledged his fault. Then, he drank poison and shot himself. On May 7, 1945, Eisenhower accepted the surrender of the Germans. Unfortunately, President Roosevelt did not get to see the victory.
He had passed away suddenly on April 12. Harry S Truman took his position. He signed the official surrender. The war in Europe was finally over!

Victory in Asia

Japanese were still fighting in the Pacific. By 1944, the Allies were attacking Japan. In October, Allied forces invaded the Philipines to drive the Japanese out. The American troops were lead by General MacArthur. However Japan was not going to leave without a fight, and a fight they gave the US. The Japanese fought to the bitter end in every battle that took place, and on the 23rd of that month, the Japanese had to put their entire forces on the line. Their Navy saw a disastrous defeat within three days and with this major fighting force elimiliminated, the Japanese fought desperately with their army and their Kamikaze pilots. The notoriousness of the Kamikaze made this word synonymous to 'recklessness' or 'destruction'. They were pilots charged with suicial missions and crash their planes, filled with explosives onto enemy warships. With months of raging warfare, the Americans gained the upper hand in March 1945, when the American Marines took an island 660 miles off Tokyo, Iwo Jima. Then a month later, the Marines moved into the island of Okinawa. The bloodiest land battle of the war happened in the process of taking over this island. The Japanese lost 110,000 and the American troops lost 12,500.

With the War's momentum in the favour of the Allies, the American forces layed their eyes on Japan after their victory in Okinawa. Truman knowing that invading Japanese homeland would result in costing 500,000 lives in the allied forces alone. On the 6th of August 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. 73,000 were instantly killed in this attack. On the 9th, a second was dropped on Nagasaki, and with it came 37,500 more deaths. The American use of such heinous weapons, in conjunction to the Soviet invasion of the Manchuko gave no choice for Hirohito (Japanese Emperor) to bypass the government's relentless denial to defeat and he ordered the ceasefire.

On the 14th of August 1945, Japan officially surrendered. This day in history is named V-J Day. After the signing of the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, the war in Japan was finally over!

This is an Youtube video about the Japanese surrender of World War II
Source 11

Background Information

Victory Tilts Toward the Allies

Meanwhile...At Home...

Allies Finally Victorious

E Period Joon and Patrick